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Misinterpreting Musical Talent
by Dr. Brad Bailey
Music has always been a part of the worship experience.  David said in Psalm 27:6, “And now shall mine head be lifted up above mine enemies round about me: therefore will I offer in his tabernacle sacrifices of joy; I will sing, yea, I will sing praises unto the LORD.”

Several forms of music are encouraged in the Bible.  For example: 
  • Instrumental music – Psalms 150:3-5, Praise him with the sound of the trumpet: praise him with the psaltery and harp. Praise him with the timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and organs. Praise him upon the loud cymbals: praise him upon the high sounding cymbals.
  • Emotional music – James 5:13, Is any among you afflicted? let him pray. Is any merry? let him sing psalms.
  • Orchestrated music – I Chronicles 23:3-5,Now the Levites were numbered from the age of thirty years and upward: and their number by their polls, man by man, was thirty and eight thousand. Of which, twenty and four thousand were to set forward the work of the house of the LORD; and six thousand were officers and judges: Moreover four thousand were porters; and four thousand praised the LORD with the instruments which I made, said David, to praise therewith.
  • Instructive music – Ephesians 5:18-19, And be not drunk with wine, wherein is excess; but be filled with the Spirit; Speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;
  • Powerful music – II Chronicles 5:12-14, Also the Levites which were the singers, all of them of Asaph, of Heman, of Jeduthun, with their sons and their brethren, being arrayed in white linen, having cymbals and psalteries and harps, stood at the east end of the altar, and with them an hundred and twenty priests sounding with trumpets:) It came even to pass, as the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one sound to be heard in praising and thanking the LORD; and when they lifted up their voice with the trumpets and cymbals and instruments of musick, and praised the LORD, saying, For he is good; for his mercy endureth for ever: that then the house was filled with a cloud, even the house of the LORD; So that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud: for the glory of the LORD had filled the house of God.
  • Evangelistic music – Psalms 40:3, And he hath put a new song in my mouth, even praise unto our God: many shall see it, and fear, and shall trust in the LORD.
  • Unworthy music – Amos 5:23-24, Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols. But let judgment run down as waters, and righteousness as a mighty stream.

 

         Church music has evolved greatly, but it still plays a significant role in the world of the church.  We have very little idea how the first Christians expressed their melodies.  However, we can extrapolate the role of music in the church and we can best understand it by first discussing what music is not:

 

  • It is not a showcase for talent. Character is what is important, then gifting.
  • It is not exclusively synonymous with worship. All aspects of worship are worship, not just the music.
  • It is not about singing about praise and worship. The song is not about the worshiper, it is about God, the object of our worship.
  • It is not primary. Preaching is primary.
  • It is not style-driven. It is to be truth-driven.
  • It is not a meritorious work to usher us into God’s presence. Jesus Christ is the only one who can usher us into God’s presence.

 

         Because music is still vital, it is equally important to understand what music is supposed to be in the church:

 

  • It is obedience. We are commanded to worship through singing. Both in the Old Testament and in the New Testament (Ephesians 5:18-20).
  • It is didactic, or doctrinal.  The old hymns resembled sermons.  They had several stanzas and verses like sermons have points.
  • It is for corporate edification. It is not to be an individual ecstatic experience. And it is not to be an individual stoic experience.  If singing is to be congregational, everyone needs to be able to participate in it.

 

         With the exception of the psalms and a few songs based solely on a scripture text, all hymns are human productions.  Their quality and value depends on the poetic and musical skills of the author, his knowledge and understanding of the Bible and the Scriptural sentiments incorporated in them.  What is of great importance to remember in regards to music is that spiritual music comes from spiritual people.  Also, quality music comes from training.  In I Chronicles 15:22 the Bible says,And Chenaniah, chief of the Levites, was for song: he instructed about the song, because he was skilful.”  Martin Luther even felt that music was a part of the Christians weaponry of assault against the Devil: “The Devil hates music because he can’t stand gaiety.  Satan can smirk but he can’t laugh; he can sneer but he can’t sing. (emphasis mine)”

         No true Christian wants to dishonor the Lord with their musical styles or preferences, so how can we know if our church’s music has become dishonorable and unbecoming of worship?  Ask yourself these questions:

 

  • Are the words of the music doctrinally sound?
  • Is the text of the music biblical?
  • Does the music stimulate spiritual thought?
  • Does the music properly instruct?
  • Does the music inspire high spiritual ideals?
  • Does the music fit the text?
  • Is the music excellent?
  • Does the music fit the need?
  • Does the music produce a wholesome response?
  • Do harmful associations come to mind because of the musical style or the composer’s name?

 

John Wesley once said, “Beware of singing as if you were half-dead or half-asleep.  Lift up your voices with strength.  Be no more afraid of your voice now, or more ashamed of its being heard, than when you sang the songs of Satan.”  That quote confirms what I have always felt to be true and that is that all music is some form of worship.  The old songs that we knew and sang as lost people uplifted Satan and his kingdom.  May it be true that we labor to sing twice as much and twice as hard for the Lord as we did for the Devil, and may our present music be distinctively different than our former.

When a congregation enters a church building or auditorium, they must be called out of the influences that the world has imposed upon them and be prepared to worship the Lord.  This is done with God-honoring music.  The music must be of such a sort that it is distinctly different than the world and engenders higher and holier thinking.  It must lift the hearer and elevate the hearer into spiritual realms.  It should be distinctly “ours.”  It is not the world’s style.  It is not the world’s lyrics.  It is not the world’s beat.  It is distinctively ecclesiastical and holy.  The world will see it as strange – they don’t sing like this, they don’t play like this, they are clearly not included in its style.  That should be the natural reaction of the world to our music.  It does not motivate worldly dance, or inspire sensuality.  It is not composed of words that unite with a beat that creates sensations in the flesh.  It is uniquely and distinctly church music.  We do not need the church song service to sound like a rock concert because that is not our style.

That is quite a contrast to the philosophy of the 1950’s gospel music legend Hovie Lister’s (Statesmen Quartet) philosophy of gospel music.  Early in his career he said:

 

“If it takes shaking my hair down, beating a piano like Liberace or Piano Red to keep these young people out of beer joints and the rear seats of cars, I’ll do it.  The Devil’s got his kind of entertainment.  We’ve got ours.  They criticize me, say I’m too lively for religion, but I get results.  That’s what counts.”1

 

Hovie Lister blurred the lines of musical distinctiveness.  Lister and other pioneers of Southern Gospel style music also created a slippery slope.  Lister’s philosophy was pragmatism; whatever works is right.  This is exactly the same New Evangelical philosophy that permeates the Contemporary Christian Music field of today.  Hovie Lister and the Statesmen were forerunners to Contemporary Christian Music.  God has not instructed us to do whatever “gets results,” but to obey His Word regardless of the results.

Bill Gaither, in his history of Southern Gospel, admits that Hovie Lister’s “approach was loud, fast, swingy, and pop” and that “he would do whatever it took to get the loudest applause, the biggest laugh (Bill Gaither, Homecoming, p. 133).”  In fact, some conservative Christian radio stations broke Statesmen records on the air to protest their jazzy music.

Imagine a church where the music is worldly and designed to be entertaining to the flesh.  It’s actually not hard to imagine; you can experience it in many modern churches.  Then imagine how impossible it will be to preach the whole counsel of God in that church.  When the flesh is aroused and in control of the song service, the preaching of the Word of God will not be able to compete with that.  People will not be patient enough to sit for a forty-five minute or an hour sermon if they have just recently been worked up into a frenzy by ungodly music.  Line-upon-line, precept-upon-precept expository preaching becomes impossible if it is forced to be in competition with worldly music.  The preaching event is to be the highlight of the worship service, but it becomes anti-climactic in the wake of music that excites the flesh.  Expository preaching (which has already been discussed in chapter four) is incompatible with sensual, worldly music.

Doctrinally sound words are also an essential in our church.  The British professor and atheist Roger Scruton asserted that if you want to know what people believe in the broad variety of Christian teachings, listen to their hymns and their prayers.  A very astute observation indeed.  Doctrinal weakness and, in some cases, doctrinal error have been tolerated because it was uttered through song.  Imagine the following scene described in the song “There Will Come a Day” by a popular male Southern Gospel quartet.  The intention of the song was to create the scene of Calvary and a partially imagined dialogue between God the Father and Jesus Christ:

 

(Verse 2) One day in the Garden of Gethsemene, Jesus prayed if it be thy will, let this cup pass from me.

 

He knew the plan of God would have to be. And in just a few short hours He would die on Calvary.

His humanity cried, “Lord another way!”

His divinity rose up and said, “This price I’ll have to pay.”

And just before the father turned away, He said,

 

(Chorus 2) There will come a day, your defeat will turn to victory,

for the cross that you carry, bears the weight of all the world.

There will come a day, when the blood stains in your hands,

Declare the hope of every man. Oh my child, there will come a day!

 

The drama of this song cannot be conveyed in written text, but the extreme rise of a crescendo and the mix of harmony that made this song so pleasant to listen to are concealing a terrible doctrinal error.  Look at the words of that second chorus again.  God is depicted in a scene in which He is congratulating His Son for finishing the task set before Him, even though He supposedly lost in the cause.

 

(Chorus 2) There will come a day, your defeat will turn to victory,

for the cross that you carry, bears the weight of all the world.

There will come a day, when the blood stains in your hands,

Declare the hope of every man. Oh my child, there will come a day!

 

If that lyric is correct, then Jesus was something of a failure on Golgotha.  That will not square with the doctrine of the Bible.  It is easy to conceal doctrinal errors like this with harmony and emotional manipulation.  I would contend that if this type of doctrinal error had been advanced without the emotional climate created by musical accompaniment, it would have been shot out of the saddle immediately by most Independent Baptists.  Consider some similar statements and their sources where such crass heresy is not covered over by melody:

 

“Satan conquered Jesus on the Cross . . . [in Hell Jesus was an] emaciated, poured out, little wormy spirit.”2

 

I would dare say that the vast majority of Baptists would never allow such poppycock to be uttered on their platform without protest.  However, that statement made by Kenneth Copeland, is virtually a repeat of the words from the song “There Will Come a Day.”  Copeland also said, “I was shocked when I found out who the biggest failure in the Bible actually is . . . The biggest one in the whole Bible is God . . . Now, the reason you don’t think of God as a failure is He never said He was a failure.  And you’re not a failure till you say you’re one.”3  That is intolerable rank heresy for most!  That is, unless it is disguised in a pretty tune like the following example from a song recorded by another well-known gospel family:

 

From up in heaven one day God looked down, saw that the souls of men downward were bound.

It made Him so sad, He wanted a plan, that saved they might be (that saved they might be).

After all else had failed, God sent His Son; had Him to die that our souls might be won.

Wasn’t He good, so good to you and to me (to me).

 

This one has a bluegrass style to it that effectively mesmerizes the listener and causes him/her to bypass the error without noticing that it is borderline blasphemy.  According to those words: “After all else had failed, God sent His Son; had Him to die that our souls might be won . . .”, the plan of salvation was an afterthought and a response to a heavenly failure -  a plan B.  It would appear from those lyrics that if God had played His hand a little more wisely, He could have spared His Son of the crucifixion.  Other examples of this kind of doctrinal sacrifice abound in Southern Gospel music.

 

Singing Right – Livin’ Wrong

 

Many of the popular gospel groups are characterized by overt worldliness.  Drinking, smoking, womanizing, and divorce have been the common features of many gospel groups.  The Statesmen’s first tenor, Bobby Strickland observed that Southern Gospel quartets often reach a certain level and “then something happens.”  He believed the reason for this was that “they don’t live right” (The Music Men, p. 97).  It begins when their sanctification and doctrine become the servants of their itinerary.

The singers often dip their colors to take advantage of opportunities to sing with non-gospel singers like Elvis Presley who often performed with J. D. Sumner and the Stamps, the Jordanaires, members of the Speer Family (Brock and Ben), Laverne Tripp and others.  At these events these singers often smoked, drank, cavorted with women, etc.  During the years in which Sumner and the Stamps were backing Elvis, Sumner’s nephew, Donnie, who sang in the group, became a drug addict and was lured into the licentious pop music field.  Others have aligned themselves with country music stars like, the ever immodest, Dolly Parton to further their careers.

At one Kingsmen Quartet concert a screaming, hair-pulling fight broke out between the bass singer’s ex-wife and his current girlfriend.  Multiple gospel singers have come out of the closet as open homosexuals who were secretly practicing their perversion while on the road singing gospel music.

Many male quartets are noticeably effeminate.  I have never been able to get a blessing out of male quartets that brandish long hair and gaudy jewelry (ex. Guy Penrod and David Phelps of the Gaither Vocal Band).  They often unbutton the tops of their shirts to show chest hair, and wear immodestly tight clothing.  The newest craze among Southern Gospel quartets like Ernie Haase & Signature Sound is interpretive dance and synchronized stage performance that often works the ladies in the crowd into a frenzy of screeching and crowding the front of the stage for a closer glimpse of these iconic singers.  It is quite similar to the effects that Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, the Beach Boys and the Beetles had on young women.

So how do Southern Gospel moguls like Bill Gaither tolerate such open violations of the Word of God and allow such offensiveness to go on stage?  The answer can be found in a statement that Gaither made in an interview with Kim Jones, a tattooed female rocker who writes a column for the Roman Catholic publication Holy Spirit Interactive.  Gaither said, “Finger pointing is never, I think, of God.  Because I know that Scripture ‘judgment is mine, saith the Lord.’  When we get out of the judgment business and just get into the being business, the being what God wants us to be, it will take care of itself” (Holy Spirit Interactive, Dec. 6, 2004).  There is the answer as plain as the nose on your face: all compassion and no judgment.  The level of biblical ignorance reflected by this statement is frightening, especially when we consider the vast amount of influence that Bill Gaither has on churches in this generation.

 

The Woeful Sacrifice of Doctrine

 

Dr. David Cloud related the following experience in an excellent article revealing the doctrinal debauchery that follows modern gospel singers:

 

The Gaithers provided the music one evening at Indianapolis ‘90, a large ecumenical charismatic gathering I attended with press credentials.  One-half of the 25,000 participants were Roman Catholics.  A Catholic mass was held each morning during this conference, and Catholic priest Tom Forrest from Rome brought the closing message.  Roughly 40 other denominations were present.  The Gaithers were perfectly at home in this unscriptural gathering, entertaining the mixed multitude with their lively music while turning a blind eye to the heresy all around them.  They did not say one word about the abominable Catholic mass that was conducted each morning of the conference.  They did not say one word about the demonic spirit slaying and spirit drunkenness which was being practiced.  They did not lift their voice to warn of the cursed false gospels which were represented.  They did not reprove priest Tom Forrest for preaching at the Indianapolis conference that he praised the Lord for purgatory and for Mary the Queen of Heaven.4

 

In 1997 Southern Gospel legend Vestal Goodman joined Roman Catholic Kathy Troccoli and 40 other Contemporary Christian Music artists to record “Love One Another”, a song with an ecumenical theme: “Christians from all denominations demonstrating their common love for Christ and each other.”  The song talks about tearing down the walls of denominational division.  The broad range of participants who joined Kathy Troccoli in recording “Love One Another” demonstrates the ecumenical agenda of Contemporary Christian Music.  The song witnessed Catholics, Pentecostals, Baptists, etc., yoked together to call for Christian unity.  A representative of the Southern Gospel world (Goodman) was right in the midst of this unscriptural alliance.

I often cringe when I hear of sound Independent Baptist singers entering the world of commercialized Southern Gospel music because I know that, of a necessity, they will be forced to align themselves with unscriptural outfits that will eschew sound doctrine.  It starts with flattery.  These young groups are flattered by invitations and awards, and before you know it, they are drawn into the non-doctrinal culture of itinerant gospel singing.

 

The Myth of a Great Church Service With No Preaching

 

There is nothing more spiritual and fruitful than preaching.  I did not always agree with that statement, but I have come to realize that God places a high premium on the act of preaching.  When I was younger in ministry, I was impressed when a church service would develop in such a way that there was no time for preaching because of testimonies, or perhaps, people who began to move toward the altar during the singing.

I remember when my mind began to change about that.  It was in a winter revival that I was conducting in the state of Georgia.  A service broke out into singing and testifying and when the pastor asked me to come and preach, I allowed the folks to continue to testify and sing until the hour was late, and we finally closed the service.  We had a great time for sure.  It was after the service that a particular man in the church who happened to be an antagonist and a thorn in the pastor’s side said to me, “See!  Look what great things can happen when we don’t have preaching.”  I knew then that much of the time, a service with no preaching is very satisfying to carnal people.

Preaching handles problems.  When there is no preaching, there is no problem solving.  I have noticed that in churches where preaching is down the list of priorities, below singing and testifying, problems tend to abound.  That may not always be the case, but it is certainly common.

It is now my contention that preaching the Bible is the catalyst that the Holy Spirit uses to motivate, convict and persuade people spiritually.  Though I love singing, I would contend that the Holy Spirit will not thoroughly do any of the above listed things in a service where there is only singing.  Therefore, I have concluded that we need preaching for the Lord to really move effectively.  The emotional stir that is created in singing is to soften the hearts of the people and prepare them for preaching.  A service with all singing and no preaching is a service where God could have moved, but did not move to the fullest potential, because the tool that He uses most was eliminated from the event.

 

Why Old Songs?

 

            All the songs in our hymnals were once new.  Thus, being new is not itself a proper objection to using a hymn.  However, the content and design of older hymns have not been improved on.  Without question, many of the Southern Gospel songs have lovely, spiritual lyrics and can be used in our worship without biblical objection.  Some of them will eventually find their way into our hymnals and become a permanent part of our body of hymns.  Those that have unscriptural sentiments should be weeded out and cast aside.  Those that are trivial should not be introduced as songs of worship at all.  While popular music is generally on the charts only for a few weeks, or at best for one generation, some Christian hymns have been popular with saints for a hundred years or more.  It is arrogant for a new generation to declare such spiritual treasures obsolete or boring and insist on replacing them with their “new” songs.

When someone writes a song that is as good, or better than the old hymns, our church will pick up that song and begin using it in worship.  When today’s music reaches the level of clarity and doctrinal accuracy that the old hymns possess, they should be added to the list of songs used in worship.

Even some of the old songs have their fair share of doctrinal aberrations.  The old Julia Ward Howe hymn “Battle Hymn of the Republic” starts off with “Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord”.  The coming of the Lord refers either to Jesus taking all of his believers out of the world through the rapture or His return to the earth and the end of the seven year tribulation.  Neither of these have happened yet and obviously, the writer did not see this.  Also, Fanny Crosby’s “Draw Me Nearer,” ends the chorus with, “Draw me nearer, nearer, nearer blessed Lord, To Thy precious, bleeding side.”  This again is an impossibility seeing that Christ Jesus bled and died and He is not bleeding anymore.  He suffered and died for our sins and rose again.  His suffering is complete (Heb. 10:12, Rom. 6:9-10, Heb. 9:28).  Other old hymns share doctrinal errors as well, and it proves that any human seeking to articulate the limitless attributes of God is indeed limited in vocabulary.  This makes all gospel music vulnerable to doctrinal error.

One point of contrast between the old songs of the hymn book and modern music is that the old hymns had multiple verses.  Some of them even had a half-dozen verses, or even more in their original versions.  There have been nearly a dozen verses of Amazing Grace discovered.  The point is that many of the old hymns resembled sermons with multiple doctrinal points being made with each verse.  Also, in many of the hymns, I’ve noticed that at least one of the verses was evangelistic.  It effectively warned the listening sinner that the greatest need of their life was the new birth and that God had made the way of salvation accessible for them.

In conclusion, it is critical to understand that church music is not intended to be pleasing for us, but rather, it is intended to minister to the needs that God has for worship and that sinners have for evangelism.  Church music is for the Lord.  With that concept in mind, three things are important: the message of the event, the men behind the event and the music of the event.  Church songs must have the right doctrinal message, that message has to be written by sanctified men and those songs must have God-honoring tunes.

It has been said that unfortunately, “Music in many churches is no different than what you hear in the honky-tonk.  It is sensual, fleshly, hyper-emotional and shallow.  The message has been taken out of the lyrics, the beat is dominant, and the philosophy behind it is unscriptural.  Music is an expression of the heart.  Music was not created to be a form of entertainment; It is a gift whereby we can express our heart to God.  When a church begins to compromise, one of the very first areas they will change is the music.  And when their music begins to adopt worldly styles, that church is on the way to apostasy . . . Worldly music will never produce a spiritual thought in your mind, and godly music holds no appeal for carnal believers.”5

We praise the Lord for all Christian music, Southern or otherwise, which doesn’t sound like the world, which has scriptural lyrics, which seeks solely to glorify Jesus Christ and edify the saints, and which is produced by faithful Christians.  Sadly, though, much Southern Gospel Music incorporates worldly pop, country, jazz, boogie-woogie, and rock rhythms, and is oriented toward entertainment.  It is closely akin to Contemporary Christian Music.

 

Additional Divers Musical Atrocities

 

            I asked my wife to check some things out for me and she found the words to the following Contemporary Christian Music in the span of just thirty minutes by looking on a local radio station’s web site:

 

Grey’s my favorite color

Black and white has never been my thing

I’ll take my drink lukewarm now

Hot and cold is not the thing for me

 

Absolutes are hidden

I’ve buried my convictions

 

[Chorus:]

I cannot be blind no more

Numb to what I’m living for

Help me stop this compromise that justifies these lies

I need Your passion in this life

 

I don’t want to impose

Who really needs to know what I believe

Cause no one likes rockin’ boats

And who would care to see the way I see

 

So give me the fire, yeah

God give me Your fire

And raise this life higher

 

            Those words sung by Barlow Girl are, yet again, testimony of the weakening of the power of Christianity to change a person radically offering victory and not vacillating compromise.  Singers like this are singing about struggles and personal issues instead of the power of God and the Gospel.  Look at how other artists like Plumb romanticize our walk with God and make it a fantasy:

 

Your baby blues, so full of wonder

Your curly cues, your contagious smile

And as I watch, you start to grow up

All I can do is hold you tight

 

Knowing clouds will rage

And storms will race in but you will be safe in my arms

Rains will pour down, waves will crash all around

But you will be safe in my arms

 

Story books full of fairy tales

Of kings and queens and the bluest skies

My heart is torn just in knowing

You’ll someday see the truth from lies

 

When the clouds will rage

And storms will race in but you will be safe in my arms

Rains will pour down, waves will crash all around

But you will be safe in my arms

 

Castles they might crumble

Dreams may not come true

But you are never all alone

Because I will always, always love you

 

When the clouds will rage

And storms will race in but you will be safe in my arms

Rains will pour down, waves will crash all around

But you will be safe in my arms, in my arms

 

            But these examples of entertaining romanticism are not the worst.  See if you can spot the subliminal humanism that lies in this song, also sung by Plumb:

 

I need you and you need me

Left alone we will never be who we could be

So take my hand and don’t forget

We can do anything together!

 

Chorus:

Oh, oh, oh,

Just one drop of your love

A single ray of sun

Just one thing to change the world!

It’s just you and me starting with a dream

And giving all you’ve got

Only takes one drop!

Oh, oh, oh, only takes one drop!

Only takes one drop

Only takes one drop

Oh, oh, oh, oh

 

Come with me now, look and see how

There’s an ocean overflowing with our hopes!

So let’s jump in and take a swim

You and me yeah, forever!

 

            Those are words that are indeed appealing to the fleshly desire to supplement the work of God with human efforts, but I must say that this one topped them all for me:

 

Now I’m smiling, and I’m kissing all my worries goodbye

Got the feeling, if I spread my wings I might even fly

You are my truth, my way

Give me the strength to say

Get up, get up, get up

Cause it’s a good morning, hey

 

Mr. Mac to the mic

 

[Toby Mac]

Hey, top of the morning to you ‘disa

You smoothie, me ice cold pizza

Cafe au lait, latte dah

You do the zumba, but I do not

Give me like half a marathon,

I’ll give you the gospel of St. John.

Hits me like a wake-up bomb

Cuz’ we both know that His mercy flows,

In the morning.

 

            The case is closed.  The Contemporary Christian Music genre is not a God-honoring musical genre.  There is enough evidence in these songs (which my wife was able to discover in THIRTY MINUTES) to prove that this style of music is not edifying the believer, but is entertaining the flesh of those who are not satisfied with the Bible.  The Southern Gospel music industry is not far behind in their secularization of the industry and the pragmatic approach to doctrinal accuracy.  Musical doctrine should not be a take-it-or-leave-it object.  Right doctrine is essential in music too.

 

Sources & Notes:

 

  1. Article, Southern Gospel Music, Dr. David Cloud, www.wayoflife.org.
  2. Kenneth Copeland, taken from Christianity in Crisis, p. 33, by Hank Hanegraaf, Harvest House, 1997.
  3. Kenneth Copeland, taken from Christianity in Crisis, p. 125, by Hank Hanegraaf, Harvest House, 1997.
  4. Article, Southern Gospel Music, Dr. David Cloud, www.wayoflife.org.
  5. Remove Not the Ancient Landmarks, by Dr. Tim Fellure, Article, The Newsletter, Victory Baptist Press (July-August, 2013).